Noticias

Mezquita profética en Medina, época otomana

Mezquita profética en Medina, época otomana


La historia de los otomanos en Hejaz

Talal Al-Torifi es un académico y profesional de los medios de comunicación saudí.

Zekeriya Kurşun cree erróneamente que el servicio otomano a las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas representa un argumento histórico clave en sus artículos recientes. Como de costumbre, los turcos y los historiadores que siguieron su ejemplo se centran en una imagen positiva del control otomano de las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas.

En realidad, sin embargo, los otomanos tienen un legado histórico vergonzoso en el Hejaz. Aunque algunos historiadores intentan encubrir este legado, no logran desacreditar las fuentes históricas que los documentan.

Creo que el mayor problema que tienen los historiadores turcos está relacionado con estas fuentes y no con los propios árabes.

Esto se debe a que es imposible ocultar estas fuentes y su clara condena de los otomanos y su gobierno del Hejaz.

Las dos mezquitas sagradas

El argumento de Kurşun sobre las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas se basa en el hecho de que los sultanes otomanos ostentaban el título de Custodio de las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas, aunque no fueron los primeros en esto, ya que Saladino lo tuvo antes que ellos.

Hablar de las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas es un intento de socavar el servicio que les brinda Arabia Saudita y la serie de logros del Reino que claramente causa cierta confusión a los turcos. Evidentemente, no hay lugar para la comparación entre los servicios otomanos y saudíes a las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas.

Los sauditas llevaron a cabo su misión basándose en principios nobles: primero, la ley islámica pura que fomenta el servicio a los lugares sagrados en las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas, segundo, el deseo de servir a la ummah islámica y a los musulmanes de todo el mundo y tercero, el hecho de que los Dos Las mezquitas sagradas representan una parte integral del Reino de Arabia Saudita.

En contraste, los otomanos sirvieron a las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas con un propósito singular: propaganda política para su imperio, utilizándola para reclamar el control sobre la mayor área geográfica del mundo islámico y santificando así su autoridad. Sin embargo, según la evidencia histórica, la mayor parte del mundo árabe, incluida la Península Arábiga, estaba sufriendo negligencia política y económica.

El Golfo Árabe quedó para los europeos y sus aspiraciones coloniales, y Andalucía clamaba por la ayuda de los otomanos, que nunca hicieron un verdadero intento por protegerlo. Mientras todo esto sucedía, el Imperio Otomano estaba tratando de lograr sus políticas con respecto a Europa y extender su diplomacia a Francia y otros lugares sin ninguna consideración seria para avanzar en los lugares que afirmaba tener bajo su control y que pretendía proteger.

Esto llevó a los árabes, incluidos los de la Península Arábiga, a conocer los verdaderos colores de los turcos otomanos y la forma en que estaban agotando sus países de origen. Como resultado, la gente de la Península Arábiga se opuso a la presencia otomana y rechazó las soluciones que imponían la dominación otomana.

Esto se hizo apoyando la legitimidad nacional representada por los imanes del estado saudí, ya sea al final del primer estado saudí, durante el período entre los dos estados, o durante el segundo estado saudí y la era del rey Abdulaziz.

Cuando los otomanos intentaron lograr su dominio político utilizando a un miembro de la familia saudí en el segundo estado saudita para hacerse cargo del gobierno en su nombre, fracasaron, ya que la población se negó a someterse a ellos oa sus representantes, lo que llevó al fracaso. de sus aspiraciones coloniales.

Otro argumento que prueba que los otomanos no sirvieron a las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas por razones religiosas es que ninguno de sus sultanes visitó las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas ni realizó la peregrinación del Hajj. Servir a las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas requiere que el custodio las cuide, las visite y supervise los servicios que se brindan allí, ya que es directamente responsable de ellas.

Esto es algo a lo que los otomanos se comprometieron a hacer durante su gobierno sobre el Hejaz, pero en realidad nunca lo hicieron.

Para comprender mejor las motivaciones políticas del control otomano sobre las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas, recordemos que no tuvieron tratos con el primer estado saudí, que intentaron socavar, hasta que este último anexó las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas.

El propio Kurşun declaró que los otomanos no tomaron medidas contra el primer estado saudí hasta después de la anexión de La Meca. Según Kurşun, "los otomanos estaban indignados por la incautación de la Meca, e inmediatamente informaron a los gobernadores vecinos y les ordenaron que tomaran las medidas necesarias".

Cabe mencionar que los otomanos se aliaron con potencias extranjeras, incluida Gran Bretaña, para derrocar al primer estado saudí. Esto es evidente en la visita del capitán británico George Forster Sadleir al campamento de Ibrahim Pasha en 1334 AH / 1819 AD, donde lo felicitó por derrocar al estado saudí, y discutió con él la movilización de poderes locales y regionales para llevar a cabo un ataque conjunto otomano-británico contra los últimos aliados del primer estado saudí en Ras Al-Khaimah y Sharjah, los jeques de Al-Qasimi, con el objetivo de eliminar la influencia saudí incluso después de la caída del estado.

En consecuencia, Gran Bretaña lanzó su cuarta campaña en Sharjah utilizando los servicios otomanos y en coordinación con el Imperio Otomano. El odio otomano hacia los sauditas alcanzó su punto máximo como lo demuestra Brydges, quien dijo: “Ese fue el fin de un gobierno que fue creado por personas que eran débiles y ahora fuertes, y que asustaron a los pachás turcos en Asia y a su sultán en Constantinopla. Los wahabíes se equivocaron sobre el alcance de su poder e imaginaron que podrían desafiar al gobierno británico ”. Esto muestra el apoyo de Gran Bretaña a los otomanos para derrocar al primer estado saudí.

En cuanto al título de Custodio de las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas en poder de Selim I, es divertido verlo afirmar con orgullo que fue el primero en usarlo y agregó, "después de Saladino". Entonces, ¿cómo lo convierte eso en el primero en llevar el título? Cualquiera puede afirmar que es el primero en hacer algo después de la persona que le precedió. Además, servir a las Dos Santas Mezquitas no es una cuestión de títulos y precedencia, es una cuestión de acciones y evidencia histórica.

Es cierto que los otomanos prestaron algunos servicios a las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas, pero no eran tan ideales como los describe Kurşun. Selim I se declaró a sí mismo el Custodio de las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas en 922 A.H./ 1516 A.D. antes de derrotar al Sultanato Mameluco. En ese momento, anunció que su objetivo era apoderarse de las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas.

Con respecto a la captura del Hejaz, Kurşun pasó por alto el hecho de que Selim I estaba planeando enviar una campaña militar para lograrlo, contrariamente a lo que dijo sobre el Sharif de La Meca que envió voluntariamente a su hijo, según informó Al-Sanjari en Mana'ih. Al Karam.

Mencionó que Selim I estaba planeando enviar su ejército, pero algunas personas de Hejaz que estaban en Egipto después de la derrota del sultanato mameluco le aconsejaron que escribiera primero al Sharif. Selim siguió su consejo y escribió al Sharif de La Meca. Le pidió al Sharif que enviara a su hijo y le prometiera lealtad al Imperio Otomano.

Cuando los otomanos se hicieron cargo de Hejaz, solo crearon una división administrativa (sanjak) en Jeddah, con el objetivo de monitorear La Meca, que seguía siendo autogobernada por los Sharif. Esta fue la política otomana a la hora de anexar y administrar muchos países. Los otomanos estaban interesados ​​en las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas con fines de propaganda. Por lo tanto, brindaron asistencia material y solidificaron la doctrina de tener un Sultanato oficial mediante la reconstrucción del santuario de la escuela Hanafi en el Santuario de La Meca.

En 932 A.H./ 1525 A.D., nueve años después de hacerse cargo de Hejaz, los otomanos violaron atrozmente el santuario de La Meca. Ibn Fahd relata que “Cometieron actos atroces en La Meca, atacaron las casas de los lugareños, los echaron a patadas junto con sus esposas, se apoderaron y destruyeron sus posesiones y vivieron en sus casas. Los lugareños pidieron ayuda, pero nadie estaba allí para ellos excepto Alá. La crueldad de los otomanos empeoró cuando todos los residentes de La Meca levantaron la mano hacia Dios y desearon mal a los otomanos. Los otomanos eran malvados al participar públicamente en adulterio, pagar poco por la comida en los mercados o tomarla sin pagar ".

¿Qué tipo de servicio comienza con tales violaciones? Las fuentes históricas detallan muchas violaciones y atrocidades posteriores. Los servicios de construcción que los otomanos y sus historiadores afirman que hicieron para las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas se realizaron a instancias repetidas de los Sharif. La restauración y construcción fue extremadamente limitada, dado que las obras arquitectónicas, especialmente en el siglo X d. C., fueron realizadas con gran cautela por los otomanos.

Esto se debió a sus súbditos sufíes extremistas que tenían una visión poco realista de las obras de construcción, afirmando que las estructuras sagradas estaban inherentemente preservadas y no necesitaban restauración. Por lo tanto, cualquier obra de construcción o restauración fue extremadamente limitada y se llevó a cabo después de muchas deliberaciones, reuniones y conflictos entre diferentes escuelas de pensamiento.

Así, regodearse del servicio turco a las Dos Sagradas Mezquitas y la asistencia brindada por los otomanos disimula la verdadera realidad del asunto. El nivel del servicio turco ni siquiera se puede comparar con el nivel de servicio que ofrece el Reino de Arabia Saudita. Según fuentes históricas, los otomanos prestaron servicios seguidos de violaciones, y tomaron más de lo que dieron cuando se trata del servicio a las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas. También violaron la santidad de las Dos Sagradas Mezquitas en muchos eventos históricos, como lo hizo Fakhri Pasha en Medina en el incidente de Seferberlik, cuando desplazó a su gente y encarceló a unos 170 de sus eruditos y líderes antes de exiliarlos a Levante y Anatolia.

Eran similares a los prisioneros durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, viviendo en alienación forzada, desplazamiento y angustia. A Fakhri Pasha no le importaba el trágico destino de estos habitantes, a quienes sus soldados arrestaron en las calles sin importar su género, edad o estatus. Los habitantes de Medina cuentan muchas más historias trágicas sobre las atrocidades imperdonables que cometieron Fakhri Pasha y los otomanos.

Siempre que Fakhri daba un sermón en Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, insultaba y maldecía a los árabes y los acusaba de traición. Fakhri colocó explosivos alrededor de la habitación del Profeta Muhammad en la Mezquita Sagrada, la Tumba Santa y los patios de Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, cuando fue acorralado, y amenazó con volar Al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

Antes de eso, robó posesiones de la habitación del Profeta Muhammad. Debido a su tiranía, Medina llegó a un desastroso estado de hambruna donde la gente recurrió a comer gatos y cadáveres exhumados de las tumbas.

La última acción de los otomanos contra el Santuario de La Meca fue la más atroz de la era moderna.

Cuando Sharif Hussein bin Ali anunció la revuelta en 1334 AH / 1916 AD, los otomanos dispararon artillería contra el Santuario de La Meca desde la Fortaleza de Ajyad. Golpearon la Casa Sagrada justo encima de la Piedra Negra, prendieron fuego a la cortina de la Kaaba y dañaron los pórticos de la mezquita con sus bombas.

De hecho, al volver sobre el control otomano sobre las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas, se encuentran muchas contradicciones en los libros y estudios de investigación que exageran los servicios otomanos. Los otomanos no respetaron la santidad de las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas y no se molestaron en participar en actos prohibidos y violar lugares sagrados. Los ejemplos anteriores son prueba suficiente, pero una investigación histórica más profunda revela aún más violaciones otomanas en las Dos Mezquitas Sagradas.

Solo en La Meca, sin mencionar en Medina, los otomanos cometieron peores actos que los que hizo Abraha Al-Habashi antes del Islam cuando violó la santidad de La Meca. Cometieron actos peores que los que cometió Al-Hajjaj cuando catapultó la Kaaba. Eran similares a los qarmatianos cuando tomaron pedazos de la Piedra Negra durante la era de Suleiman I.

Ojalá Kurşun hubiera estudiado historia ampliamente en lugar de limitarse a los periódicos otomanos oficiales. Presumir de la existencia de documentos y escritos turcos no significa que reflejen una realidad histórica, sino que representan un punto de vista oficial y la historia que quieren contar, no la historia que quieren ocultar.

Kurşun y otros están simplemente difundiendo una narrativa histórica distorsionada basada en una antigua herencia en un intento de crear una fuerza política basada en una ideología que apunta a disipar una parte del orden natural. Están tratando de vivir de acuerdo con una aristocracia que coloca a los turcos por encima del resto del mundo, incluidos los árabes, y regresar a una vida desprovista de esfuerzo y trabajo, tal como disfrutaban los otomanos cuando confiaban en la riqueza de los demás.


Contenido

Bajo Muhammad y el Rashidun (622-660 EC o 1-40 AH) Editar

La mezquita fue construida por Mahoma en 622 EC (1 AH) después de su llegada a Medina. [8] Montado en un camello llamado Qaswa, llegó al lugar donde se construyó esta mezquita, que estaba siendo utilizada como cementerio. [9] Negándose a aceptar la tierra como regalo de los dos huérfanos, Sahl y Suhayl, que eran dueños de la tierra, compró la tierra que fue pagada por Abu Ayyub al-Ansari y tomó siete meses completar la construcción del mezquita. Medía 30,5 m × 35,62 m (100,1 pies × 116,9 pies). [9] El techo que estaba sostenido por troncos de palma estaba hecho de arcilla batida y hojas de palma. Estaba a una altura de 3,60 m (11,8 pies). Las tres puertas de la mezquita eran la "Puerta de la Misericordia" (باب الرحمة Bab ar-Rahmah) al sur, "Puerta de Gabriel" (باب جبريل Bab Jibril) al oeste y "Puerta de las mujeres" (باب النساء) al este. [10] [9] En este momento de la historia de la Mezquita, el muro de la qiblah [11] miraba al norte de Jerusalén, y al-Suffah estaba a lo largo del muro norte. [12]

En el año 7 AH, después de la Batalla de Khaybar, la mezquita se amplió [13] a 47,32 m (155,2 pies) a cada lado y se construyeron tres filas de columnas al lado del muro oeste, que se convirtió en el lugar de oración. [14] La mezquita permaneció inalterada durante el reinado del primer califa Rashidun Abu Bakr. [14]

El segundo califa de Rashidun, Umar, demolió todas las casas alrededor de la mezquita excepto las de las esposas de Muhammad para expandirla. [15] Las dimensiones de la nueva mezquita se convirtieron en 57,49 m × 66,14 m (188,6 pies × 217,0 pies). Se utilizaron ladrillos de barro secados al sol para construir las paredes del recinto. Además de esparcir guijarros por el suelo, la altura del techo se aumentó a 5,6 m (18 pies). Umar construyó tres puertas más para la entrada. También añadió el "Al Butayha" (البطيحة) para que la gente recitara poesía. [dieciséis]

El tercer califa de Rashidun, Uthman, demolió la mezquita en 649. Se pasaron diez meses en la construcción de la nueva mezquita de forma rectangular cuyo rostro estaba vuelto hacia la Kaaba en La Meca. La nueva mezquita medía 81,40 m × 62,58 m (267,1 pies × 205,3 pies). El número de puertas, así como sus nombres, permaneció igual. [17] El recinto fue construido con piedras colocadas en argamasa. Las columnas de tronco de palma fueron reemplazadas por columnas de piedra unidas por abrazaderas de hierro. La madera de teca se utilizó para reconstruir la filza del techo. [18]

Bajo los regímenes islámicos posteriores (660-1517 EC o 40-923 AH) Editar

En 707, el califa omeya al-Walid I (r. 705-715) renovó la mezquita. Fueron necesarios tres años para completar el trabajo. Las materias primas se adquirieron del Imperio Bizantino. [19] El área de la mezquita se incrementó de los 5.094 metros cuadrados (54.830 pies cuadrados) de la época de Uthman a 8.672 metros cuadrados (93.340 pies cuadrados). Se construyó un muro para segregar la mezquita y las casas de las esposas de Mahoma. La mezquita fue reconstruida en forma trapezoidal con una longitud del lado más largo de 101,76 metros (333,9 pies). Por primera vez, se construyeron pórticos en la mezquita que conectan la parte norte de la estructura con el santuario. Los minaretes también se construyeron por primera vez cuando al-Walid construyó cuatro minaretes a su alrededor. [20]

Período otomano (1517-1805 y amperio 1840-1919 CE o 923-1220 y amperio 1256-1337 AH)

Solimán el Magnífico (r. 1520-1566) reconstruyó los muros este y oeste de la mezquita, y agregó el minarete noreste conocido como Süleymaniyye. Agregó un nuevo altar llamado Ahnaf junto al altar de Muhammad, Shafi'iyya, y colocó una nueva cúpula cubierta de acero en la tumba de Muhammad. Solimán el Magnífico escribió los nombres de los sultanes otomanos desde Osman Bey para sí mismo (Kanuni) y revivió la "Puerta de la Misericordia" (Babürrahme) o la puerta oeste. El púlpito que se utiliza hoy fue construido bajo Murad III (r. 1574-1595).

En 1817, Mahmud II (r. 1808-1839) completó la construcción de la "Residencia Purificada" (الروضة المطحرة al-Rawdah al-Mutaharah en árabe y Ravza-i Mutahhara en turco) en el lado sureste de la mezquita y cubierto con una nueva cúpula. La cúpula fue pintada de verde en 1837 y desde entonces se la conoce como la "Cúpula Verde" (Kubbe-i Hadra). [5] El sucesor de Mahmud II, Abdulmecid I (r. 1839-1861), tardó trece años en reconstruir la mezquita, comenzando en 1849. [25] Los ladrillos de piedra roja se utilizaron como material principal en la reconstrucción de la mezquita. La superficie de la mezquita se incrementó en 1.293 metros cuadrados (13.920 pies cuadrados).

Toda la mezquita fue reorganizada a excepción de la tumba de Mahoma, los tres altares, el púlpito y el minarete de Suleymaniye. En las paredes, los versos del Corán estaban inscritos en caligrafía islámica. En el lado norte de la mezquita, un madraza fue construido para enseñar el Corán. [26] Se agregó un sitio de abluciones en el lado norte. El lugar de oración en el lado sur tenía el doble de ancho y estaba cubierto con pequeñas cúpulas. Los interiores de las cúpulas están decorados con versos del Corán y coplas del poema "Kaside-i Bürde". La pared de Kible estaba cubierta con azulejos pulidos con líneas del Corán inscritas. Los lugares de oración y el patio fueron pavimentados con mármol y piedra roja. El quinto minarete Mecidiyye, fue construida al oeste del área circundante. Después del arresto del "Tigre del Desierto" Fakhri Pasha al final del Sitio de Medina el 10 de enero de 1919, 400 años de dominio otomano en la región llegaron a su fin.

Insurgencia saudita (1805-1811 CE o 1220-1226 AH) Editar

Cuando Saud bin Abdul-Aziz tomó Medina en 1805, sus seguidores, los wahabíes, demolieron casi todas las tumbas y cúpulas de Medina para evitar su veneración, [27] excepto la Cúpula Verde. [28] Según los hadices sahih, consideraban la veneración de tumbas y lugares que se pensaba que poseían poderes sobrenaturales como una ofensa contra tawhid y un acto de eludir. [29] La tumba de Mahoma fue despojada de sus ornamentos de oro y joyas, pero la cúpula se conservó debido a un intento fallido de demoler su estructura endurecida, o porque hace algún tiempo Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, fundador del movimiento wahabí, escribió que no deseaba ver la cúpula destruida. [27]

Dominio saudí e historia moderna (1925-presente EC o 1344-presente AH)

La toma de poder saudí se caracterizó por hechos similares a los que tuvieron lugar en 1805 cuando el príncipe Mohammed ibn Abdulaziz retomó la ciudad el 5 de diciembre de 1925. [30] [31] [32] [33] Después de la fundación del Reino de Arabia Saudita en 1932, la mezquita sufrió varias modificaciones importantes. En 1951, el rey Abdulaziz (1932-1953) ordenó demoliciones alrededor de la mezquita para dar paso a nuevas alas al este y al oeste de la sala de oración, que consistía en columnas de hormigón con arcos apuntados. Las columnas más antiguas fueron reforzadas con hormigón y reforzadas con anillos de cobre en la parte superior. los Suleymaniyya y Mecidiyye Los minaretes fueron reemplazados por dos minaretes en estilo renacimiento mameluco. Se erigieron dos minaretes adicionales al noreste y noroeste de la mezquita. Se construyó una biblioteca a lo largo del muro occidental para albergar los Corán históricos y otros textos religiosos. [26] [34]

En 1974, el rey Faisal agregó 40,440 metros cuadrados (435,000 pies cuadrados) a la mezquita. [35] El área de la mezquita también se amplió durante el reinado del rey Fahd en 1985. Se utilizaron topadoras para demoler edificios alrededor de la mezquita. [36] En 1992, cuando se completó, la mezquita ocupaba más de 160.000 metros cuadrados (1,7 millones de pies cuadrados) de espacio. Las escaleras mecánicas y 27 patios se encontraban entre las adiciones a la mezquita. [37] En septiembre de 2012 se anunció un proyecto de $ 6 mil millones para aumentar el área de la mezquita. Una vez finalizada, la mezquita debería albergar entre 1,6 millones y 2 millones de fieles. [35] En marzo del año siguiente, Gaceta Saudita informó que el trabajo de demolición se había completado en su mayoría, incluida la demolición de diez hoteles en el lado este, además de casas y otros servicios públicos. [38]

La Masjid an-Nabawi de hoy en día está situada en una parcela rectangular y tiene dos pisos de altura. La sala de oración otomana, que es la parte más antigua de Masjid an-Nabawi, se encuentra hacia el sur. [39] Tiene un techo plano pavimentado con 27 cúpulas corredizas sobre bases cuadradas. [40] Los agujeros perforados en la base de cada cúpula iluminan el interior cuando las cúpulas están cerradas. El techo corredizo se cierra durante la oración de la tarde (Dhuhr) para proteger a los visitantes. Cuando las cúpulas se deslizan sobre rieles de metal para dar sombra a las áreas del techo, crean pozos de luz para la sala de oración. En estos momentos, el patio de la mezquita otomana también está sombreado con paraguas colocados en columnas independientes. [41] Se accede al techo por escaleras y escaleras mecánicas. El área pavimentada alrededor de la mezquita también se usa para la oración, equipada con carpas con sombrillas. [42] Las cúpulas deslizantes y los toldos retráctiles en forma de paraguas fueron diseñados por el arquitecto musulmán alemán Mahmoud Bodo Rasch, su firma SL Rasch GmbH y Buro Happold. [43]

Rawdah ash-Sharifah (El jardín noble) Editar

los Rawḍah ash-Sharifah (Árabe: روضة الشريفة, iluminado. 'The Noble Garden') es un área entre el minbar y la cámara funeraria de Muhammad. Es considerado como uno de los Riyāḍ al-Jannah (Árabe: رِيَاض ٱلْجَنَّة, iluminado. 'Jardines del Paraíso'). [44] [5] [45] Una alfombra verde distingue el área del resto de la mezquita, que está cubierta por una alfombra roja. Al considerar visitar Medina y realizar el Ziyarah, Muhammad dijo:

"El que me visita después de mi muerte es como el que me había visitado durante mi vida". [46] “Cuando una persona se para ante mi tumba recitando bendiciones sobre mí, lo escucho y quienquiera que me pida bendiciones en cualquier otro lugar, todas sus necesidades en este mundo y en el más allá se satisfacen y en el día de Qiyamah yo será su testigo e intercesor ”. [47]

Los peregrinos intentan visitar los confines de la zona, porque existe la tradición de que las súplicas y oraciones pronunciadas aquí nunca son rechazadas. El acceso al área no siempre es posible, especialmente durante la temporada del Hajj, ya que el espacio solo puede acomodar a unos pocos cientos de personas y el movimiento está restringido por la policía. [45]

Green Dome Editar

La cámara adyacente a la Rawdah sostiene las tumbas de Muhammad y dos de sus compañeros, suegros y califas, Abu Bakr y Umar ibn al-Khattab. Una cuarta tumba está reservada para ‘Īsā (árabe: عِـيـسَى, Jesús), ya que los musulmanes creen que regresará y será enterrado en el sitio. El sitio está cubierto por el Green Dome. Fue construido en 1817 EC durante el reinado del sultán otomano Mahmud II y pintado de verde en 1837 EC. [5]

Mihrab Editar

Hay dos mihrabs o nichos que indican la qibla (en árabe: محراب, romanizado: mihrab, iluminado. 'lugar de guerra') en la mezquita, una fue construida por Muhammad y otra fue construida por el tercer califa Rashidun, Uthman. El construido por este último era más grande que el de Muhammad y actúa como el mihrab funcional, mientras que el mihrab de Muhammad es un mihrab "conmemorativo". [48] ​​Además del mihrab, la mezquita también tiene otros nichos que actúan como indicadores para la oración. Esto incluye el Miḥrâb Fâṭimah (Árabe: مِـحْـرَاب فَـاطِـمَـة) o Miḥrāb aṫ-Ṫahajjud (Árabe: مِـحْـرَاب الـتَّـهَـجُّـد), que fue construido por Mahoma para el Ṫahajjud (tarde en la noche) oración (árabe: تَـهَـجُّـد). [49]

Minbar Editar

El original minbar (Árabe: مِـنـۢبَـر) utilizado por Mahoma era un bloque de madera de palmera datilera. Este fue reemplazado por él con uno de tamarisco, que tenía unas dimensiones de 50 cm × 125 cm (20 pulgadas × 49 pulgadas). En 629 CE, se le añadió una escalera de tres escalones. Los dos primeros califas, Abu Bakr y Umar, no usaron el tercer escalón como señal de respeto a Mahoma, pero el tercer califa, Uthman, colocó una cúpula de tela sobre él y el resto de las escaleras se cubrieron con ébano. los minbar fue reemplazado por Baybars I en 1395, por Shaykh al-Mahmudi en 1417 y por Qaitbay en 1483. En 1590 fue reemplazado por el sultán otomano Murad III con un mármol minbar, mientras que el minbar de Qaytbay se trasladó a la mezquita de Quba. A partir de 2013, el minbar otomano todavía se usa en la mezquita. [49]

Minaretes Editar

Los primeros minaretes (cuatro en total) de 26 pies (7,9 m) de altura fueron construidos por Umar. En 1307, un minarete titulado Bab al-Salam fue agregado por Muhammad ibn Kalavun que fue renovado por Mehmed IV. Después del proyecto de renovación de 1994, había diez minaretes que tenían 104 metros (341 pies) de altura. La parte superior, inferior y media de los minaretes son cilíndricas, octogonales y cuadradas, respectivamente. [49]

Imanes de al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Imán Nombre en árabe
Sh. Dr. Ali bin 'Abdurrahman al-Hudhaify الشيخ الدكتور علي بن عبدالرحمن الحذيفي
Sh. Dr. Abdulbari 'bin' Awwad ath-Thubaity الشيخ الدكتور عبدالرحمن بن عواد الثبيتي
Sh. Dr. Hussain bin 'Abdul' Aziz الشيخ الدكتور حسين بن عبدالعزيز
Sh. Dr. Abdulmohsin bin Muhammad al-Qaasim الشيخ الدكتور عبدالمحسن بن محمد القاسم
Sh. Dr. Salah bin Muhammad al-Budayr الشيخ الدكتور صلاح بن محمد البدير
Sh. Ahmed Taalib Hameed الشيخ أحمد طالب حميد
Sh. Dr. 'Abdullah bin' Abdurrahman al-Bu'ayjaan الشيخ الدكتور عبدالله بن عبدالرحمن البعيجان
Sh. Dr. Ahmad bin Ali al-Hudhaify الشيخ الدكتور أحمد بن علي الحظيفي
Sh. Dr. Khaalid bin Sulaiman al-Muhanna الشيخ الدكتور خالد بن سليمان المهنى
Mu'azzins de al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Mu'azzin Nombre en árabe
Sh. Abdurrahman Khashoggi الشيخ عبدالرحمن خاشقجي
Sh. Essam Bukhari الشيخ عسام بخاري
Sh. 'Umar Yusuf Kamal الشيخ عمر يوسف كمال
Sh. Sami Dewali الشيخ سامي ديوالي
Sh. Muhammad Majid Hakeem الشيخ محمد ماجد حكيم
Sh. Ashraf 'Afifi الشيخ أشرف عفيفي
Sh. Ahmed 'Afifi الشيخ أحمد عفيفي
Sh. 'Umar Sunbul الشيخ عمر سنبل
Sh. Abdulmajeed as-Surayhi الشيخ عبدالمجيد الصريحي
Sh. Usamah al-Akhdar الشيخ اسامة الأخضر
Sh. Madhi Bari ' الشيخ مهدي بارئ
Sh. Anas Sharif الشيخ أنس شريف
Sh. Muhammad Qassas الشيخ محمد قصاص
Sh. Hassan Khashoggi الشيخ حسان خاشقجي
Sh. Ahmed al-Ansari الشيخ أحمد الأنصاري
Sh. Faisal Nu'man الشيخ فيصل نعمان
Sh. Iyadh Shukri الشيخ عياض شكري

Galería Editar

El viejo Mihrab construido por Muhammad. El mihrab fue remodelado varias veces a lo largo de los siglos y actualmente está engastado en mármol.

La mezquita en el reverso de un 1993100-riyal factura en papel. El Masjid an-Nabawi se usa en el reverso de todos los 100-riyal notas en Arabia Saudita, con la cúpula verde en el anverso.

Las puertas de la mezquita llevan un sello dorado con la inscripción "Muhammad, el Mensajero de Dios".

La biblioteca de Masjid an-Nabawi alberga varios manuscritos y libros antiguos y se especializa en la preservación de la historia islámica.

Los paraguas protegen a los peregrinos de las duras temperaturas del verano de Medina. Los ventiladores que rocían agua también se colocan en cada pilar del paraguas, para mantener frescos tanto a la plaza como a los peregrinos y turistas.


No hay ningún significado de Yathrib, era un nombre hecho a sí mismo que se le dio a la ciudad (que ahora es Medina).

Con el asentamiento del Profeta (PBUH) en Medina, la ciudad tuvo un nuevo nacimiento.

Esta noticia llegó al Profeta (la paz sea con él), y él convocó al Ansar y dijo: & # 8216 ¿Qué es esto que he oído de ti? & # 8217 Eran personas que nunca dijeron mentiras, por lo que dijeron, & # 8216 he escuchado. & # 8217

Abu Hurayra (RA) dijo en otro hadiz,

Escrito por Mufti Muhammad Shoaib. Editado por los editores de información islámica.

El escritor es investigador del Centro de Estudios e Investigación Estratégicos de los Emiratos.


Mezquita profética en Medina, época otomana - Historia

Medina es la segunda ciudad más sagrada del Islam, conocida principalmente por su importancia en los primeros años de la predicación de Mahoma, y ​​como el sitio de la Mezquita del Profeta, que contiene la tumba de Mahoma. Actualmente, es una ciudad importante del moderno estado-nación de Arabia Saudita, ubicada en la región de Hejaz en el oeste del país, aproximadamente a 180 km tierra adentro desde el Mar Rojo y 200 km al norte de La Meca.

Medina preislámica (110 - 622 d.C.)

Antes de la migración de Mahoma (hégira) a la ciudad en 622, Medina era conocida como Yathrib, un conjunto de oasis fértiles poco conectados supuestamente habitado desde la época de Abraham. Fue establecido y cultivado formalmente en el siglo VI a. C. por tres tribus judías, los Banu Quynuqa, los Banu Qurayza y los Banu Nadir, que se casaron con la población árabe local. Los detalles sobre el desarrollo urbano de este asentamiento son limitados, ya que la historia preislámica de la ciudad está más vinculada al conflicto cultural entre clanes rivales que a su entorno construido. No se conoce que exista un mapa de la ciudad anterior al siglo XIX.

Yathrib y La Meca compartían un dios patrón del panteón árabe llamado Manat, por lo que las peregrinaciones religiosas al sur de la Kaaba en La Meca (que albergaba los ídolos de los dioses árabes) eran comunes. La desgastada ruta de las caravanas entre los dos oasis, que eran paradas en la antigua carretera entre Yemen y Siria, era un corredor comercial activo, pero la ciudad nunca logró la influencia mercantil del lugar de nacimiento del profeta. La economía de la ciudad era principalmente agraria y el patrón de asentamiento correspondía a la ubicación de pozos y manantiales esparcidos en un área relativamente grande. Cada tribu o clan de esta zona heterogénea reclamaba una fuente de agua específica, y las interacciones se alternaban entre amistosas y hostiles. Como tal, Yathrib no era una entidad urbana cohesionada. Los conflictos entre sus diversas comunidades eran frecuentes, al igual que las invasiones de forasteros. Las ruinas existentes de algunas de las muchas fortalezas preislámicas de la zona dan fe de esta red de defensa multinodal, a diferencia del sistema de murallas de muchas de sus ciudades contemporáneas. Un muro significaría una integridad urbana específica, mientras que Yathrib era más una aglomeración de oasis que no se cohesionaban, en la era preislámica, en una sola comunidad política o un entorno construido distinto.

Entre los siglos III y IV d.C., el área atrajo a dos tribus yemenitas, los Banu Awz y los Banu Khazraj. The longstanding conflict between these two Arab clans would only be resolved by the nascent Islamic diplomacy of Muhammad, who was invited to mediate between the city's warring factions after over a century of open warfare.

Medina in the time of Muhammad (622 - 632 CE)

Under constant threat of assassination from Mecca's hostile Quraysh tribesmen, Muhammad agreed to move to Yathrib, whose large population of Jewish monotheists he assumed would be receptive to his revival of Abraham's spiritual legacy. The constitution of Medina that he established formed the legal basis for his leadership and the relations between the region's various religious and ethnic communities. Yathrib became his base for conquering Arabia and converting its population to Islam, and it came to be known as Madinah al-Munawwara (the luminous city), Medinat an-Nabi (city of the Prophet) or Madinat Rasul Allah (city of the apostle of Allah). Medina, which means "city" in Arabic, is the shortened form of these eponyms.

While the urban layout of the city during this period is difficult to determine precisely, Medina provided an architectural typology that would be replicated the world over: Muhammad's house and his mosque provided the spatial organization of the religious, political, judicial and social functions of the Muslim house of prayer. Three entrances led to a roofed courtyard, where prayers were offered in the direction of the qibla. To the left of the qibla wall (which originally faced Jerusalem) lay the women's section. Eventually, design guidelines for the minbar and mihrab were articulated. When the Prophet died ten years later, with Mecca conquered and Islam spreading fast across the Middle East and beyond, his tomb became Medina's most famous landmark. While the ulema strictly enforced Islam's proscription against worshipping at a tomb, Muhammad's gravesite became an important site of pilgrimage for the early Muslims. To this day, pilgrims continue to visit Muhammad's tomb, often immediately after making Hajj in Mecca. The city grew rapidly as the four Rightly Guided Caliphs presided over a rapidly expanding Islamic empire.

Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid and Mamluk Periods (657 - 1517 CE)

The first Islamic Civil War of 657 resulted in the creation of the Umayyad dynasty. The Umayyads transferred the seat of Islamic power to Damascus in 661, and thus relegated Medina to the status of a provincial town, albeit one of extreme religious significance. The Umayyad Caliph al-Walid was the first of many Muslim rulers to expand the Mosque of the Prophet substantially, tearing down the original external walls and adding a teak roof and Greek and Coptic tiles. When power shifted from Damascus to Baghdad the Abbasids followed suit and enlarged the Mosque again. At the urban scale, defense was the primary determinant of Medina's urban development: Medina's wall dates from the ninth century, during the Abbasid period. While nothing remains of the first walls (attributed to 872, 966 and 1102), historians site them as closely surrounding the Mosque complex.

While the city would never regain its political importance, it remained a significant center of Islamic jurisprudence. As Islamic laws were codified in Medina over the years, it became, like Mecca, a city forbidden to non-Muslims. Unlawful entry was deemed punishable by death. Only in 1854 did a non-Muslim, Richard Burton, venture to the city in disguise and record his findings for popular readership in Britain. But the urban fabric that Burton discovered was largely built (or substantially renovated) between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries, and Western scholarship on the medieval period remains more literary and religious than architectural. Medina's fate in the shifting political landscape of the medieval Muslim world, however, is well documented.

Medina and Mecca came under Fatimid control in the late tenth century. As the rivalry between Fatimid Cairo and Abbasid Baghdad grew, the holy cities of Arabia were somewhat insulated from politics and left to theological pursuits. In the ensuing Ayubbid and Mamluk (1260 - 1517), Mecca and Medina remained tied to the Cairo Sultanate, which continued the tradition of renovating the Mosque of the Prophet by adding a dome and an ablution fountain. The city's walls appear to date from Mamluk times. The Mosque continued to dominate the city at this time, and the commercial activity of pilgrims remained central to the province's economy.

Ottoman Period (1517 - 1917)

In 1517, the Ottoman Empire wrested control of the city from the Mamluks. Like many territories within the sultans' sphere of influence, the Hejaz was administered as an Ottoman suzerainty, with significant autonomy over all matters except foreign policy and defense. Local power, however, was concentrated in the hands of the Hashemite sharifs based in Mecca. Defensibility remained paramount, and the most significant urban wall was built between 1526 and 1537 by Suleyman the Magnificent. Neither Meccan nor Ottoman officials were entirely successful in defending the holy cities from the Wahhabi invasions of the early 19th century (the Wahhabis captured the city in 1804). Only when the Sultan in Istanbul called on the help of Muhammad Ali, the military leader of Cairo, were the Ottomans successful in driving the Wahhabis into the desert and regaining control of their Arab lands in 1812. This development led the Ottomans to exercise more sovereignty over Hejaz, which resulted in ambitious infrastructural advancements for the city, whose population 17,000 by 1819. Ottoman influence remains apparent, in the ruins of forts and in the impressive railway to Damascus, which opened in 1908 and formally connected Medina to the rest of the world. The modernization program that the Ottomans initiated at Mecca and Medina, however, was not extended to the rest of Ottoman Arabia.

By the early twentieth century, the number of faithful making Hajj to Mecca rose to the hundreds of thousands, and the majority of them made the additional trip north to the Medina. Among the international pilgrims who visited the Hejaz from distant lands ranging from Southern Africa to South East Asia were those who chose to remain permanently in the Holy Cities. These waves of immigration, coupled with the influence of Jeddah's importance as a Red Sea port, infused the cities of Hejaz with a cosmopolitan character that drew on the scholarly traditions of the region. The first stirrings of the Arab Revolt began within the Hejaz, when the Amir of Mecca, Husain ibn 'Ali al-Hashimi, began to recognize that the imperial power of the Ottoman Empire was on the wane. In 1916, Husain proclaimed the Hashemite kingdom of the Hejaz, the first independent state to emerge from Ottoman lands in Asia. The kingdom, however, would last less than a decade before falling to Ibn Saud and his Wahhabi troops after a 15-month siege in 1924. It was first absorbed into Najd in 1925 and, in 1932, into the modern nation-state of Saudi Arabia.

The Saudi period (1925 - present)

The initial years of Saudi rule were marred by the economic collapse that the conflict between the Sharifs and the Saudis had wrought. In the 1920s, the population of Medina had dwindled to 18,000. The discovery of oil in the 1930s, however, irrevocably changed the fortunes of Saudi Arabia and of the Holy Cities.

Ambition construction projects became the preferred mode of investment for Saudi oil money. And as was the case in the successive reigns of medieval Islam, all modernization programs began with an addition to the Prophet's Mosque. Medina's modern urban development began with the 1950 - 1955 Mosque renovation. The resulting rise in land price surrounding the Mosque, in addition to the municipal reorganization of the city and improved water infrastructure, led many citizens to build their homes far from the old city. Buildings close to the traditional center capitalized on the increased land value by building taller.

By the early 1960s, the population of Medina had climbed to 72,000, and the municipality responded by announcing a sweeping modernization campaign that would change the spatial character of the city considerably. Wide streets were paved, provided with lighting and lined with trees. Private homes were often expropriated and demolished to meet urban planning objectives. While the economy continues to be dominated by Hajj-related goods and services, agriculture - primarily dates and cereals - continues to support a section of the population, and irrigation infrastructure has evolved from wells to pumps. In 1961, Islamic University opened its doors, honoring the city's long scholarly tradition with a tertiary institute devoted to Islamic subjects, with students from across the world.

Today, Medina's population numbers approximately 900,000. Modern mixed-use mosque complexes, such as the Miqat Mosque Complex appear alongside the earliest examples of Islamic architecture. The mosque of the prophet remains the center of the now sprawling city. Now one hundred times its original size, it can accommodate half a million worshippers.

"Timeline of Art History." The Met Museum. Accessed January 11, 2007. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/10/wap/ht10wap.htm

Makki, M. S.. Medina, Saudi Arabia: a geographic analysis of the city and region . Amersham, Bucks: Avebury, 1982.

Nomachi, Kazuyoshi. Mecca, the blessed, Medina, the radiant: the holiest cities of Islam . New York: Aperture, 1997.

Sabini, John. Armies in the sand: the struggle for Mecca and Medina . New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson, 1981.

Teitelbaum, Joshua. The rise and fall of the Hashemite kingdom of Arabia . New York: New York University Press, 2001.


Contenido

Historic sources talk about the existence of a Roman city around the zone in which Sfax now exists called Taparura. The absence of tremendous monuments that used to distinguish Roman cities made it possible to think that either Sfax was built completely above Taparura, or that Taparura was not much more than a watchtower as its name exactly means in greek, and so does "Ksar-Esfakez", original form of Sfax's name in berber-punic. [2] [3] What is however very likely is that the former Taparura is associated with the arab-era Kasbah.

According to the inscriptions at the facade of the great mosque, the medina of Sfax was founded following the orders of the Aghlabid emir (prince) of Kairouan Abu Abbass Muhammad in 849, by Ali Ibn Salem, cadi of Sfax. [1] In fact, in the middle of the ninth century, the Aghlabids who used to rule Ifrikia agreed on supporting the city's shores with forts and trusses, that's when Borj Sfax or Kasbah of Sfax was built as one of the forts, but as time passed and life evolved around it the Aghlabid decided to build the city of Sfax. [2]

Fatimid era Edit

With the fall of the majority of the Aghlabid State in the hands of the Fatimids, Sfax suffered its first crisis since its foundation, when attacked among other cities in 914 by the ruler of Sicily, Ahmed bin Gharb, a strong supporter of the Abbasids, in order to recover the cities of the African coast held by the Fatimids. This conflict ended with the victory of the Sicilian army and the destruction of the city as a punishment upon its inhabitants, even if the Fatimids quickly took control of the city thereafter. [4] However, the locals did not integrate the Ismaili rite brought by the new state and remained faithful to their Maliki doctrine thanks to the support of a great scholar, Abu Ishaq Aljbinyani. [5]

Zirid era Edit

After the transfer of the center of Fatimid power to Cairo, the Zirid governors decided to separate from the Fatimid rule and return to sunnism, prompting the Fatimids to seek revenge by sending Arab tribes from the south to destroy Ifriqiya.

Despite all these disturbances, Sfax saw an important cultural renaissance especially an architectural one during the reign of the Zirids. One of the most significant changes taking place in the city during this period is the remarkable improvement that the great mosque underwent under the rule of the Sanhaji Prince Abi Al-Fotuh Al-Mansour in 988.

In 977, the traveler Ibn Hawqal described the city as: "surrounded by a beautiful olive grove. The oil that is made here is exported to Egypt, the Maghreb, Sicily and Europe (Roum) [. ] Kerkennah contains some remains of old buildings and several cisterns. As this island is very fertile, the inhabitants of Sfax send their cattle there to graze ". [6]

During this time also, the city witnessed its first invasion when it passed under the control of Ibn Melil from 1067 to 1099 with the support of Hilalis and Banu Sulaym. [2]

Norman invasion Edit

At the end of the reign of the Zirid dynasty, between 1148 and 1156, the Normans of Sicily occupied the city, representing Sfax's first non-Islamic occupation since its foundation. This conflict ended with the execution of Sheikh Abu El Hassan El Feriani by the Normans, but on the other hand, Sfax got its independence with Omar Feriani, son of the Sheikh until the arrival of the Almohads from Morocco.

Almohad era Edit

The Almohads ruled Sfax from 1159 to 1198. During these 39 years, the city saw several crises. It was not until 1204 that the situation stabilized thanks to the intervention of Emir Muhammad al-Nasir who eliminated the Banu Ghania, who were behind many of the local conflicts. During this period of stability, 366 wells were dug in a place near the medina, that took later the name of Al Nasiriya, named after the Emir. [7]

Hafsid era Edit

From 1207 until the 16th century, the members of the Hafid dynasty succeeded at the throne of Ifriqyia, choosing Tunis as the capital. [2] Sfax quickly joined the new kingdom after some resistance, and it is during this period that its monuments were restored and that the trade movement developed. Sfaxian products became exported to several destinations such as Istanbul, Damascus and Orient as well as Marseille and Genoa. And as the Hafsids have lost a large part of Andalusia, many of the region's families traveled to settle in the kingdom's cities like Sfax We can cite the example of the Charfi family known to its scientists, the Mnif family, an important referenc when it comes to local architectural works, or the Zghal family from the emir Mohammed XIII az-Zaghall.

Era otomana Editar

In 1551, Sfax passed into the hands of the Ottomans following a conquest led by Dragut. But it was only 37 years later that they settled permanently in the city until 1864.

Reign of the Mouradids Edit

At the time of the Mouradid dynasty , Sfax experienced an important intellectual renaissance: several scholars and scholars emerged, including Abu El Hassan El Karray and Ali Ennouri who led the jihadist movement against the cross occupation of the order of Saint John in Malta. These two scholars established their own Medersas where they promoted science in the city until it became one of the most important destinations for students.

Kingdom of Husainids Edit

Sfax lived an important urban development with the arrival of the Husainid dynasty to the power. In fact, it was not until the 17th century that the first extra-muros buildings appeared. Towards the 18th century, gardens appeared, forming a belt around the medina, while a suburb began to develop on the side of the sea. [2] It was during this period that Mahmoud Megdiche published his book, Nuzhat Al Anthar fi Ajaibi Tawarikh wa Al Akhbar, which remains today an important reference on the history of Sfax.

Moreover, the city faced several battles like the battle of Rass El Makhbez in 1747 against the Republic of Venice.

French Protectorate Edit

With the establishment of the French protectorate in 1881, several cities in Tunisia choose the path of resistance. Among these cities, Sfax, whose inhabitants continue to protest and defend themselves, even more than two months after the signing of the Bardo Treaty.

While Ali Ben Khelifa El Naffati lead the army to defend the city from the outside, the inhabitants fight from the inside under the leadership of Mohammad Kammoun. It was not until 16 July 1881 that the French soldiers managed to defeat the Protestants and entered the medina to settle there for a period of 75 years. They made the kasbah their headquarter and used the patio of the big mosque as a stable for their horses.

Gradually, the medina lost its role at the expense of a new European city built by the French and became the center of all transactions and even a large part of the local economy.

Modern era Edit

On 17 February 2012, the Tunisian government presented the medina of Sfax as a candidate for ranking on the UNESCO World Heritage List. [1]

The medina of Sfax has basically the shape of a 24 hectares slightly deformed quadrilateral, limited by walls measuring 600 meters from west to east and 400 to 450 meters from north to south.The walls are consolidated by 67 towers with various shapes: semi-round, octagonal, hexagonals, barlongs or sloping. [8]

The great mosque occupies the centre of the city. It is located in the intersection of its two main arteries: the one linking Bab Jebli with Bab Diwan, and the west–east median artery. [8] The first one represents the main axis which makes with the meridian north-south an angle of 22 degrees, which corresponds to the orientation of most mihrabs mosques of Sfax. This characteristic made the medina of Sfax the unique city that recalls the urban organization of Kufa, the first Arab-Muslim city. [1]

The souks (or markets) surround the great mosque, at once place of worship, culture and sociability, from its north-west facade to Bab Jebli with a hierarchical distribution, while the rest of the area is occupied by the residential quarters. [1]

Walls and gates Edit

Apart from Borj Ennar and three other towers that disappeared, the walls of the medina kept the same original architecture since 1306. [9] These are 2,750 meters long and have 34 dungeons. Their height varies between seven and eleven meters. [9]

Originally, the medina had only two doors: Bab Jebli, also known as Bab Dhahraoui (Northern door), and Bab Diwan or Bab Bhar (the sea door). Yet, in the 20th century and because of the economic development and the huge increase of the population, new doors had to be created in order to reduce the flow from these two main doors such as Bab El Ksar and Bab Jebli Jedid. [10]

Each newly built door was temporarily assigned the name of Bab Jedid (New Door), while waiting to find a suitable final name. [10]

Separation between the old city and the modern quarter

Kasbah Edit

Like most of the other medinas of Tunisia, Sfax has its own kasbah. It is desert fortress, located in the southwestern corner of the medina. It was used for a different purposes throughout the history, first a control tower built by the Aghlabids on the coast, then the seat of the municipal government, and then the main army barracks. Its construction was preceded by the deployment of the wall and the medina quarter. Today it is served as a museum of traditional architecture [11]

Souks Edit

Souks (or markets), are organized in the medina according to their specialties or activities. All of them are located in the north of the great mosque, creating the economic centre of the city. [8]

From the 18th century, these souks started having names. [8] Currently, the medina of Sfax has about 30 different souks. Souk Erbaa, main market of chechias and woolen weaves trading, represents the most important one. [8] It consists of a main north–south artery, crossed by an east–west median street. Nowadays, Souk Erbaa is more oriented into selling traditional clothes.

Among the other souks of the medina of Sfax, there are:

Mausoleums Edit

Like all the other Islamic cities in the Arab world, the medina of Sfax had its own saints that in order to cherish, citizens, and in some cases themselves, has built mausoleums.

Among these mausoleums there are:

Mosques Edit

The medina of Sfax has a very big number of mosques and prayer rooms (nomination that depends on whether the building can host the Friday prayer or not), maliki for the majority.The architecture of these buildings reflect the dynasties that ruled the city.

The great mosque, the city's oldest and most important mosque, represents its center. It is surrounded by the rest of the mosques that for many of them, are part of a larger religious compound among with a mausoleum and a madrasa.

Among these mosques still standing we can cite:

Domestic architecture Edit

The houses of the medina in Sfax have a common architecture that is called El Dar. It is constituted of a vestibule (Skifa) that gives access through a lateral alley (Bortal) to a central hall or patio. [12] The patio's decoration and dimensions often reflect the family's social status and wealth. In most of the cases, the kitchen can be accessed by the Bortal while the rest of the rooms open on the patio. The rooms always have a rectangular shape and are characterized by their high roof that provides natural air conditioning. In some houses, the rooms have a T shape with an extra central space in each room called Kbou used to welcome guests, and 2 extra lateral cells called Maksoura for the kids. Starting from the 18th century, and with the important development of the local population, a new element started to appear in the domestic architecture: the first floor (Ali in Tunisian dialect). The latter can be an extension of the ground floor or a habitation totally separated from the main one with an entrance that can be separated in the street or in the Skifa.

Most of nowadays' houses in the medina of Sfax were built between the 17th and 18th centuries, period during which the city witnessed the biggest phase of its economic development, something that allowed the citizens to renovate their houses.

Some of these buildings kept their original function (housing) like Dar Laadhar, while many other got converted into hotels, coffee shops, or even artisans workshops. Among them we can mention:

Hammams Edit

Unlike many other medinas of Tunisia, and because of its climate condition, the medina of Sfax has a very reduced number of hammams. According to the historian Mahmoud Megdiche, the city had only four, which are: Hammam El Sultan, Hammam El Mseddi, Hammam El West that belonged to the Fourati's family and Hammam Ibn Neji also known as Hamman El Sabbaghine. [13] Apart of their hygienic role, these hammams had a very important social role as a space for meetings and a venue for many celebrations such us marriage and circumcision.

Nowadays, only Hammam El Sultan is still standing, but in poor condition due to lack of protection and renovation works.

The medina of Sfax has many monuments that are classified as national heritage monuments. These monuments are: [14]


History – The Development of The Two Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina and its Impact

I was looking into some news websites and i saw these few articles about the expansion in the Muslim Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina.I also saw a few artworks regarding the layout of the two Mosques of yesteryear as well as photographs of Mecca and the Kaabah during the early years of photography. While reading and examining them I thought I might do a little research on this topic, a little study on the development of the two cities, as well as Islamic cultural and artistic impact these recent growth caused.

A Brief History of Mecca, The First Holy City of Islam

An Imagining of the development of Mecca from the early years to recent

Mecca, or more closely to the Arabic pronounciation, Makkah, and also known as Bakkah, is a city in the Hejaz region (The Arabian Peninsula) some eight kilommetres inland from the Red Sea, in the west. Historically, the place has always been a sacred place – A Greek Historian, Dodorus Siculus, noted that ‘a temple and been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians’. According to Islamic traditions, Ibrahim and his son Ismail (Abraham and Ishmael) built the structure which is now known as the Kaabah, where is it also said that the first man, Adam, built the same structure in the same place.

During the times of the Prophet Muhammad, Around 5th and 6th Centuries AD, Mecca was the temple for Arabian pagan tribes’ deities. It is said that there were more than 350 images or statues in that area alone, presumably one for each day of the year.

Prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570, went to live his life as one of the Hashimite (Hashimiyah) of the Quraisy Tribe, until he began recieving Divine Revelations from God brought down by the Angel Jibril (Gabriel) in 610. From there he and his companions and followers were in constant struggle with the pagan tribes until Muhammad were commanded to leave Mecca for Yathrib (later known as Medina) after 13 years of enduring persecution, in 622.

While Muhammad were based in Medina, the Meccan pagan tribes keep harrassing the Muslims with wars, although their efforts are in vain and unable to defeat Muhammad and his followers.

In 628, Muhammad re-entered Mecca and rededicated the Kaabah and the city to the the worship of Allah. Mecca since then became the Islamic pilgrimage site, and the most holiest city in the Islamic World.

After the Prophet Muhammad’s death in 632, Islam expanded rapidly under the rule of his successors. However, Mecca were never made the capital of each of the Islamic empire or Caliphs, although it was always given special attention in terms of development of the city and its infrastructure.

An image of the Kaaba and the Meccan Surroundings in 1850s

The Ottoman ruled over the Holy City since 1517, and various improvements were made such as the building of the Great Mosque around the Kaaba, as well as general improvisation to the Kaaba itself. However the sovereignity over the city changed hands several times, particularly during the modern era. in 1803 the city was caputed by the first Saudi State and held it until 1813. It was in that year the Ottoman reclaimed the city and held it until the First World War, where it was seized by Syed Hussain bin Ali, the Shariff of Mecca as an Ottoman Governor. He revolted again the Ottomans, and suceeded in claiming the city in 1916 and announcing it as the Capital City of his new Kingdom, the Kingdom of Hejaz.

in 1924, during the Battle of Mecca, the Sharif were overthrown by the Saud Family and the city incorporated into the new Saudi Arabia.It was since then, rapid changes and development were made and done up to this day.

The Short History of the Prophet’s City

Medina in the 1940s. You can see the Prophet’s Mosque in the distance with the Green Dome.
Medina, or in Arabic Madinatun Nabawi (The Prophets City), or Madinatul Munawarah (The Enlightened City) or formerly known as Yathrib, is a city around 340km North of Mecca.

Medina became historically relevant to Islam ever since Prophet Muhammad made his Hijra from Mecca to Medina in 622. Medina became the site of the first mosque for the Muslims, called the Quba Mosque.

Medina also became the site of another important site of Islam – the Qiblatain Mosque. The name came from the duality form of the word Qiblat. This is the mosque where the direction of prayer (Qiblat) were changed from Jerusalem in Palestine to Mecca.

There were a number of battles significant to the rise of Islam ever since the Hijra of the Prophet. The greatest ones were the Battle of Uhud, the Battle of Badr and the Battle of the Trench, battles that were fought to withhold Islam’s sovereignity and to safeguard the Muslims’ Survival.

The Prophet were buried here in the Masjid An-Nabawi (the Prophet’s Mosque) and his companions Abu Bakar and Umar were laid to rest next to him. The tomb sites was actually the site of one of the prophet’s wife, Aisyah’s home. The site itself were adjecent to the prophet’s home.

A View of Medina with the Prophet’s Mosque

As with Mecca, Medina were under the rule of the different caliphates and kingdoms that succeeded the Prophet Muhammad. Among the significant rulers were the Rashidien Caliphate, the Egyptian Mamluks
during the 13th Century, the Turkish Ottoman in 1517 and the Saudis, after the First World War, which, again similar to what happened in Mecca, Medina was subject to rapid growth and development.

The Impact of the Developments

I was rather disheartened when I learned what happened to these two Holy Cities of Islam under the rule of the Saudi Arabia. As I have noted before, both Mecca and Medina were subject of special attention from the different Caliphates and Kingdoms of which the cities were ruled under. Most noticably are the improvements made by the Caliphates Mamluks, Ottomans – structures were build such as gates and fortifications around these two cities, as well as improvisations on the holy sites around the Kaaba and the Prophet’s Mosques such as general building of the Grand Mosque in Mecca.

However, under the Wahhabi Saudi, unfortunately and deeply saddening, we can never be able to admire and visit the sites. As much as 95% of the original structures in and around the cities were destroyed, including those which were built during the Mamluk and Ottoman Caliphate, and even those that were dated during the Prophet’s time! Graves were flattened, mausoleums were destructed and even mosques were demolished to make way for modern amenities for the approximately 4 million Hajj pilgrims who came to these sites every year.

In Mecca, the surroundings of the Grand Mosque of Mecca were completely flattened to make way for modern multinational, multi star hotel, shopping arcades retail an fast food chains and this gargantuan clock tower that overshadows the mosque and Kaaba itself. It is also said that one of the structures demolished was the home of the Prophet’s first and beloved wife Khadijah, to make way for a public toilet. The house in where the Prophet were born is now a public library although plans were made to demolish it.

In Medina, the same thing happened – the whole old city were razed to make way for modernity, losing the city cultural and historical heritage sites. It is said that many historical sites that were very significant in Islam such as the Salman Al-Farsi Mosque, the Jannatul Baqi cemetary and even the Prophet’s house himself were not spared under the bulldozers.There were apparently even plans of flattening the Prophet’s tomb!

Islam had lost many, many historical, cultural and artistic heritages around these two Holy Cities, and I hope that the rampant development, while it may bring comfort for the Hajj Pilgrims, will cease someday soon so that we may be able to study and be proud of our heritages.

People eating on a rock next to the Hilton Hotel in Mecca. Hilton Hotel. In Mecca. Unbelievable


Introduction to mosque architecture

From Indonesia to the United Kingdom, the mosque in its many forms is the quintessential Islamic building. The mosque, masjid in Arabic, is the Muslim gathering place for prayer. Masjid simply means “place of prostration.” Though most of the five daily prayers prescribed in Islam can take place anywhere, all men are required to gather together at the mosque for the Friday noon prayer.

Mosques are also used throughout the week for prayer, study, or simply as a place for rest and reflection. The main mosque of a city, used for the Friday communal prayer, is called a jami masjid, literally meaning “Friday mosque,” but it is also sometimes called a congregational mosque in English. The style, layout, and decoration of a mosque can tell us a lot about Islam in general, but also about the period and region in which the mosque was constructed.

Diagram reconstruction of the Prophet’s House, Medina, Saudi Arabia

The home of the Prophet Muhammad is considered the first mosque. His house, in Medina in modern-day Saudi Arabia, was a typical 7th-century Arabian style house, with a large courtyard surrounded by long rooms supported by columns. This style of mosque came to be known as a hypostyle mosque, meaning “many columns.” Most mosques built in Arab lands utilized this style for centuries.

Common features

The architecture of a mosque is shaped most strongly by the regional traditions of the time and place where it was built. As a result, style, layout, and decoration can vary greatly. Nevertheless, because of the common function of the mosque as a place of congregational prayer, certain architectural features appear in mosques all over the world.

Sahn (courtyard)

The most fundamental necessity of congregational mosque architecture is that it be able to hold the entire male population of a city or town (women are welcome to attend Friday prayers, but not required to do so). To that end congregational mosques must have a large prayer hall. In many mosques this is adjoined to an open courtyard, called a sahn. Within the courtyard one often finds a fountain, its waters both a welcome respite in hot lands, and important for the ablutions (ritual cleansing) done before prayer.

Mihrab & minbar, Mosque of Sultan Hassan, Cairo, 1356-63 (photo: Dave Berkowitz, CC BY 2.0)

Mihrab (niche)

Mihrab, Great Mosque of Cordoba, c. 786 (photo: Bongo Vongo, CC BY-SA 2.0)

Another essential element of a mosque’s architecture is a mihrab—a niche in the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca, towards which all Muslims pray. Mecca is the city in which the Prophet Muhammad was born, and the home of the most important Islamic site, the Kaaba. The direction of Mecca is called the qibla, and so the wall in which the mihrab is set is called the qibla wall. No matter where a mosque is, its mihrab indicates the direction of Mecca (or as near that direction as science and geography were able to place it). Therefore, a mihrab in India will be to the west, while a one in Egypt will be to the east. A mihrab is usually a relatively shallow niche, as in the example from Egypt, above. In the example from Spain, shown right, the mihrab’s niche takes the form of a small room, this is more rare.

Minaret (tower)

One of the most visible aspects of mosque architecture is the minaret, a tower adjacent or attached to a mosque, from which the call to prayer is announced.

Mimar Sinan, Minaret, Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, 1558

Minarets take many different forms—from the famous spiral minaret of Samarra, to the tall, pencil minarets of Ottoman Turkey. Not solely functional in nature, the minaret serves as a powerful visual reminder of the presence of Islam.

Qubba (dome)

Most mosques also feature one or more domes, called qubba in Arabic. While not a ritual requirement like the mihrab, a dome does possess significance within the mosque—as a symbolic representation of the vault of heaven. The interior decoration of a dome often emphasizes this symbolism, using intricate geometric, stellate, or vegetal motifs to create breathtaking patterns meant to awe and inspire. Some mosque types incorporate multiple domes into their architecture (as in the Ottoman Süleymaniye Mosque pictured at the top of the page), while others only feature one. In mosques with only a single dome, it is invariably found surmounting the qibla wall, the holiest section of the mosque. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia (not pictured) has three domes: one atop the minaret, one above the entrance to the prayer hall, and one above the qibla wall.

Because it is the directional focus of prayer, the qibla wall, with its mihrab and minbar, is often the most ornately decorated area of a mosque. The rich decoration of the qibla wall is apparent in this image of the mihrab and minbar of the Mosque of Sultan Hasan in Cairo, Egypt (see image higher on the page).

Furnishings

Mosque lamp, 14th century, Egypt or Syria, blown glass, enamel, gilding, 31.8 x 23.2 cm (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

There are other decorative elements common to most mosques. For instance, a large calligraphic frieze or a cartouche with a prominent inscription often appears above the mihrab. In most cases the calligraphic inscriptions are quotations from the Qur’an, and often include the date of the building’s dedication and the name of the patron. Another important feature of mosque decoration are hanging lamps, also visible in the photograph of the Sultan Hasan mosque. Light is an essential feature for mosques, since the first and last daily prayers occur before the sun rises and after the sun sets. Before electricity, mosques were illuminated with oil lamps. Hundreds of such lamps hung inside a mosque would create a glittering spectacle, with soft light emanating from each, highlighting the calligraphy and other decorations on the lamps’ surfaces. Although not a permanent part of a mosque building, lamps, along with other furnishings like carpets, formed a significant—though ephemeral—aspect of mosque architecture.

Mosque patronage

Mihrab, 1354–55, just after the Ilkhanid period, Madrasa Imami, Isfahan, Iran, polychrome glazed tiles, 343.1 x 288.7 cm (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Most historical mosques are not stand-alone buildings. Many incorporated charitable institutions like soup kitchens, hospitals, and schools. Some mosque patrons also chose to include their own mausoleum as part of their mosque complex. The endowment of charitable institutions is an important aspect of Islamic culture, due in part to the third pillar of Islam, which calls for Muslims to donate a portion of their income to the poor.

The commissioning of a mosque would be seen as a pious act on the part of a ruler or other wealthy patron, and the names of patrons are usually included in the calligraphic decoration of mosques. Such inscriptions also often praise the piety and generosity of the patron. For instance, the mihrab now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, bears the inscription:

And he [the Prophet], blessings and peace be upon him, said: “Whoever builds a mosque for God, even the size of a sand-grouse nest, based on piety, [God will build for him a palace in Paradise].”

The patronage of mosques was not only a charitable act therefore, but also, like architectural patronage in all cultures, an opportunity for self-promotion. The social services attached the mosques of the Ottoman sultans are some of the most extensive of their type. In Ottoman Turkey the complex surrounding a mosque is called a kulliye. The kulliye of the Mosque of Sultan Suleyman, in Istanbul, is a fine example of this phenomenon, comprising a soup kitchen, a hospital, several schools, public baths, and a caravanserai (similar to a hostel for travelers). The complex also includes two mausoleums for Sultan Suleyman and his family members.


Al-Masjid An-Nabawi During The Ottoman Era, 19th Century

Al-Masjid an-Nabawī (Arabic: المسجد النبوي‎‎ Prophet’s Mosque) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia. Al-Masjid an-Nabawi was the second mosque built in the history of Islam and is now one of the largest mosques in the world. It is the second-holiest site in Islam, after al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. It is always open, regardless of date or time.

The site was originally adjacent to Muhammad’s house he settled there after his Hijra (emigration) to Medina in 622 CE. He shared in the heavy work of construction. The original mosque was an open-air building. The mosque served as a community center, a court, and a religious school. There was a raised platform for the people who taught the Quran. Subsequent Islamic rulers greatly expanded and decorated it. In 1909, it became the first place in the Arabian Peninsula to be provided with electrical lights. The mosque is under the control of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The mosque is located in what was traditionally the center of Medina, with many hotels and old markets nearby. It is a major pilgrimage site. Many pilgrims who perform the Hajj go on to Medina to visit the mosque due to its connections to the life of Muhammad.


Ar-Rawdah an-Nabawiyah

The heart of the mosque houses a very special but small area named ar-Rawdah an-Nabawiyah, which extends from Muhammad's (s.a.w) tomb to his pulpit. Pilgrims attempt to visit and pray in ar-Rawdah, for there is a tradition that supplications and prayers uttered here are never rejected. Entrance into ar-Rawdah is not always possible (especially during the Hajj season), as the tiny area can accommodate only a few hundred people. Ar-Rawdah has two small gateways manned by Saudi police officers. The current marble pulpit was constructed by the Ottomans. The original pulpit was much smaller than the current one, and constructed of palm tree wood, not marble. Ar-Rawdah an-Nabawiyah is considered part of Jannah (Heaven or Paradise).

It is prescribed for the one who visits the mosque to pray two rak’ahs in the Rawdah or whatever he wants of naafil prayers, because it is proven that there is virtue in doing so. It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah that Muhammad (s.a.w) said: “The area between my house and my minbar is one of the gardens (riyaad, sing. rawdah) of Paradise, and my minbar is on my cistern (hawd)” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1196 Muslim, 1391.

Y se narró que Yazeed ibn Abi 'Ubayd dijo: "Solía ​​venir con Salamah ibn al-Akwa" y él oraba junto a la columna que estaba junto al mus-haf, es decir, en el Rawdah. Le dije: '¡Oh Abu Muslim, veo que estás ansioso por orar junto a este pilar!'. Él dijo: 'Vi que el Profeta (que la paz y las bendiciones de Allah sean con él) estaba ansioso por orar aquí' ”. Narrado por al-Bujari, 502 Muslim, 509.

Este trabajo es parte de un proyecto que hicimos en Tierra Santa, como invitados de Municipio de al-Madinah.
Quisiéramos agradecer a los trabajadores de la Municipalidad por sus valiosos aportes.
Sin su apoyo, esto no hubiera sido posible.


Ver el vídeo: Ben Sedira tras las declaraciones de Macron nuestro mensaje no es a Marruecos sino a un estado nucle (Noviembre 2021).